“When Students Perform at the Below Basic Level on the NAEP: What Does It Mean and What Can Educators Do?” [PDF] by Elfrieda H. Hiebert

When the National Assessment of Educational Progress in Reading (NAEP) results are published biennially, journalists and policymakers focus on the approximately third of a fourth-grade cohort who fail to attain the basic standard in reading comprehension. A legitimate concern is that these students do not have the literacy levels required for full participation in the global digital world of the 21st century. However, the attributions
and claims of their literacy levels go far beyond this concern. . .

“In the Beginning: The Historical and Conceptual Genesis of the Gradual Release of Responsibility” by P. David Pearson, Mary B. McVee, and Lynn E. Shanahan. [PDF]

Educators are always in search of approaches that promote student development and academic achievement. Engaging learners in purposeful instruction in skills and strategies is a cornerstone in every classroom. The gradual release of responsibility (GRR) model requires the responsibility of learning to shift from being teacher-centric towards students gradually assuming responsibility as independent learners.